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Addison, E. M., and B. Boles. 1978. Helminth parasites of the wolverine (Gulo gulo) from the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can. J. Zoo. 56: 2241-2242.

Allen, A. W. 1987. The relationship between habitat and furbearers. Pages 164-179 (in )M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario.

Allen, G. M. 1972. Extinct and vanishing mammals of the western hemisphere with the marine species of all the oceans. Special Publ. No. 11, Cooper Square Publishers Inc., New York: 620 pp.

Álvarez-Lao, D.J., and N. Garciá. 2010. Chronological distribution of Pleistocene cold-adapted large mammal faunas in the Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary International 212: 20–128.
Anderson, E. 1977. Pleistocene mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Fairbanks, Alaska. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology: 148: 1-21.

Anderson, R. A. 1946. Catalogue of Canadian recent mammals. Ottawa, In: National Museum of Canada. Bulletin No. 102. Biological Series No. 31.

Anonymous. 1946. The wolverine in Colorado. Colo. Cons. Comments: 9(1): 22.

Anonymous. 1944. Wolverine in Ohio? Yes, and now it’s a museum piece. Ohio Cons. Bull.: 8(6): 10.

Anonymous. 1947. Wolverines at the Detroit Zoological Park. Your Zoo: No. 2.

Anonymous. 1954. Predator Control Annual Report. U.S. Dep. Inter. (FWS), Branch of Predator & Rodent Control, Alaska District.

Anonymous. 1974. Wolverine status. US Dep. Int. Fish and Wildlife Service unpubl. rep.: 10 pp.

Anonymous. 1979. Wolverines reported in Colorado. High Country News: 11(6): 9.

Anonymous. ? A wolverine taken in cascades. Oregon State Game Comm. Bull. ?: ?

Anelli, F. 1941. Un importante reporto di (Gulo gulo L). Nella grotta di Castagnavizza. Grotte Italia: 4: 92-118.

Anthony, H. E. 1928. Field book of North American mammals. B. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York. 674 pp.

Armstrong, D. M. 1972. Distribution of mammals in Colorado. Univ. of Kansas Museum of Natural History. 1-415.

Arnemo, J. M., P. Dypsund, F. Berntsen, J. Schulze, S. J. Wedul, B. Ranheim, and L. G. Lundstein. 1998. Implantation of intraperitoneale radiotransmitters in brown bears (Ursus arctos), wolverines (Gulo gulo) and lynx (Lynx lynx): anesthetic and surgical procedures for field use [abstract]. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association; 10-13 August 1998; Madison, WI, USA: 115.

Arnemo, J. M., R. Andersen, J. Persson, P. Segerström, and B. Ranheim. 2003. Biomedical Protocol for Free-ranging Wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Scandinavia. The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway. Yearly Update: 06/09/2003.

Arnemo, J. M., R. Andersen, J. Persson, P. Segerström, and B. Ranheim. 2004. Biomedical Protocol for Free-ranging Wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Scandinavia. The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway. Yearly Update: 03/24/2004.

Arnemo, J. M., P. Ahlqvist, R. Andersen, F. Berntsen, G. Ericsson, J. Odden, S. Brunberg, P. Segerström, and J. E. Swenson. 2006. Risk of capture-related mortality in large free-ranging mammals: experiences from Scandinavia. Wildl. Biol. 12: 109-113.

Arnemo, J. M., Å. Fahlman, P. Ahlqvist, R. Andersen, H. Andrén, S. Brunberg, A. Landa, O. Liberg, J. Odden, J. Persson, P. Segerström, and J. E. Swenson. 2007. Biomedical Protocols for Free-ranging Brown Bears, Gray Wolves, Wolverines and Lynx. The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway. Yearly Update: 08/21/2007.

Arnemo, J. M., Å. Fahlman, P. Ahlqvist, R. Andersen, H. Andrén, S. Brunberg, Ø. Høgseth, A. Landa, O. Liberg, K. Madslien, J. Odden, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Persson, P. Segerström, T. Strømseth, and J. E. Swenson. 2008. Biomedical Protocols for Free-ranging Brown Bears, Gray Wolves, Wolverines and Lynx. Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden. Yearly Update: 03/31/2008.

Arnemo, J. M., A. Evans, Ǻ. Fahlman, P. Ahlqvist, H. Andrén, S. Brunberg, Ø. Liberg, J. D. C. Linnell, J. Odden, J. Persson, H. Sand, P. Segerström, K. Sköld, T. Strømseth, O. Støen, J. E. Swenson, and P. Wabakken. 2011. Biomedical Protocols for Free-ranging Brown Bears, Wolves, Wolverines and Lynx. Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden. Yearly Update: 01/03/2011.

Aronsson, M. 2009. Territorial dynamics of female wolverines. M.S. Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan. 40 pp.

Aubry, K. B., K. S. McKelvey, and J. P. Copeland. 2007. Distribution and Broadscale Habitat Relations of the Wolverine in the Contiguous United States. J. Wildl. Manage. 71(7): 2147-2158.

Audubon, J. J., and J. Bachman. 1849. The quadrupeds of North America. GR Lockwood, N.Y. Vol. 1: 383 pp.


Bachman, D., G. Gadwa, and C. Groves. 1990. A winter survey for wolverines (Gulo gulo) on the Sawtooth and Challis National Forests, Idaho. Challenge Cost Share Rep. to Sawtooth and Challis Natl. For., Idaho Dep. Fish and Game, Boise. 29 pp.

Bachrach, M. 1946. Fur. Prentice-Hall, Inc.: New York.: 672 pp.

Bailey, T. N. 1981. Factors influencing furbearer populations and harvest on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska. J. A. Chapman and D. Pursley eds., Worldwide Furbearer Conference Proc. 249-272.

Bailey, T. N. 1987. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Wolverine Feasibility Study. Project#: 74525-1261-211-88: Kenai National Wildlife Refuge files; proposal.

Bailey, V. 1980. The mammals and life zones of Oregon. North American Fauna 55: 416 pp.

Ballard, W. B., A. W. Franzmann, and C. L. Gardner. 1982. Comparison and assessment of drugs used to immobilize Alaskan gray wolves (Canis lupus) and wolverines (Gulo gulo) from a helicopter. J. Wildl. Dis.: 18:339-342.

Banci, V. A. 1982. A bibliography on the wolverine (Gulo gulo). Research, Minist. of Environ. and For. IWIFR-9. Victoria, B.C. 53pp.

Banci, V. A. 1982. The wolverine in British Columbia: distribution, methods of determining age and status of (Gulo gulo vancouverensis). Minist. of Environ. and For. IWIFR-15. Victoria, B. C. 90 pp.

Banci, V. A. 1984. Management of Yukon wolverine. Paper presented to Annual Yukon Trapper’s Association Meeting: Whitehorse, Yukon: April, 1984.

Banci, V. A. 1987. Ecology and behavior of wolverine in Yukon. M.S. Thesis, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver. 178pp.

Banci, V. A, and A. S. Harestad. 1988. Reproduction and natality of wolverine (Gulo gulo) in Yukon. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 25: 265-270.

Banci, V. A, and A. S. Harestad. 1990. Home range and habitat use of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Yukon, Canada. Holarctic Ecol. 13: 195-200.

Banci, V. A. 1994. Wolverine. Pages 99-127 in L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, S. W. Buskirk, L. J. Lyon, and W. J. Zielinski, eds. The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores, American marten, fisher, lynx and wolverine in the western United States. USDA For. Serv. Rocky Mt. For. and Range Exp. Stn., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-254, Fort Collins, Colo.

Bandy, P. J. 1952. A study of the furbearing mammals of the subalpine and Columbia forest regions of British Columbia in relation to fur production from 1929 to 1949. B.A. Thesis, Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver: 82 pp.

Banfield, A. W. F. 1950. The mammals of Waterton Lakes National Park. Canadian Wildl. Service, Wildl. Mgmt. Bull. Ser. 1, No. 1: 1-54.

Banfield, A., and J. S. Tener. 1958. A preliminary study of the Ungava caribou. J. of Mammalogy: 39: 560-573.

Banfield, A. 1987. The mammals of Canada. Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto. 438 pp.

Bangs, E. E., and T. N. Bailey. 1987. Furbearer and trapper management on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Abstract, pg. 19 in B. Townsend, ed. Fourth Northern Furbearer Conference, Alaska Dept. Fish and Game.

Barker, M. S. Jr., and T. L. Best. 1976. The wolverine (Gulo luscus )in Nevada. Southwest Nat. 21: 133.

Becker, E. F. 1991. A terrestrial furbearer estimator based on probability sampling. J. Wildl. Manage. 55: 730-737.

Becker, E. F., H. N. Golden, and C. L. Gardner. 2004. Using probability sampling of animal tracks in snow to estimate population size. Pages 248-270 in W. L. Thompson, editor. Sampling rare or elusive species: concepts and techniques for estimating population parameters. Island Press, Washington, D. C., USA.

Bee, J. W., and E. R. Hall. 1956. Mammals of northern Alaska. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist.: Misc. Publ. No. 8.

Beebe, W. 1940. Wolverines and men. N.Y. Zool. Soc. Bull.: 43 (2): 54-59.

Begouen, H. N., and D. F. E. Koby. 1950. Le crane de Glouton de la caverne des 9Trois-Freres (Ariege). Prehist., Seeleol. Ariegeoises: 5: 49-68.

Beidleman, R. G. 1956. An early record of the wolverine in western Nebraska. J. Mammal. 37: 445-446.

Bekoff, M. 1989. Behavioral development of terrestrial carnivores. Pp. 89-124 in Gittleman (1989) Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution.:Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Bellomy, M. D. 1954. Animal gangster. American Mercury: 79: 19-20.

Bevanger, K. 1992. Report on the Norwegian wolverine (Gulo gulo L.).). Small Carnivore Conservation. 6: 8-10.

Bezdek, H. 1942. Studies on the nematode Saboliphyme baturini Petrow, 1930. Trans. Am. Micr. Soc.: 61:398-403.

Biese, W. 1936. Geological age of glutton remains. Seitschr. Saugetierk. 11: 319-320.

Billings, E. 1856. The wolverine. Can. Nat. Geol.: 1: 341-346.

Billy, P. 1991. Carcajou (Le Mal Aime). Foret Conservation, Fevrier: Pages 22-25.

Biodiversity Legal Foundation. 1994. The North American Wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus). Biodiversity Legal Foundation, Boulder, CO:66 pp. + maps. Petition for a Rule to list the North American Wolverine, (Gulo gulo luscus), as “threatened” or “endangered” in the conterminous United States under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. Sec. 1531 et seq. (1973) as amended.

Birney, E. C. 1974. Twentieth century records of wolverine in Minnesota. Loon. 46: 78-81.

Bishop, R. H., and R. A. Rausch. 1974. Moose population fluctuations in Alaska 1950-1972. Naturaliste Can.: 101: 559-593.

Bjarvall, A. 1980. Flygburna forskare foljer jarvens vandringar over Alaskas tundra. Svensk Jakt. pp. 34-37.

Bjarvall, A., R. Franzen, and E. Nilsson. 1978. Jarven-enstoring i norr. Forskning och Framsteg: No. 1, p. 21-32.

Bjarvall, A. 1981. Bears, martens, wolverines and ancient forests. Sveriges Nat. Arsb.: 72: 78-80.

Bjarvall, A. 1982. A study of the wolverine female during the denning period. Trans. of the International Cong. of Game Biologists. 14: 315-322.

Bjarvall, A., and A Magoun. 1984. Wolverine. In: The Encyclopedia of Mammals (MacDonald D. ed.): Equinox (Oxford) Ltd.

Bjarvall, A., and R. Franzen. 1986. Wolverine kills golden eagle. Fauna Flora, Stockholm:81 (6): 205-206. In Norwegian with English summary.

Bjarvall, A. 1989. Still uncertain for the four. Sveriges Natur. Naturskyddsforeningens Tidskrift: 80(3): 2-9.

Bjarvall, A. ? A survey of the Swedish wolverine population. XII Congress of the Intern. Union of Game Biologists: Unpubl. Manuscript.

Bjarvall, A., S. Danielsson, R. Franzen, and P. Segerstrom. ? Experiences with the first radio-collared wolverines in Sweden. Paper presented at a symposium?, Swedish Environment Protection Agency, Solna: 14 pp.

Blair, N. 1971. A shadow in the wilderness. Wyo. Wildl.: 35 (1): 8-11.

Boles, B. K. 1975. Background study for furbearer management in the Mackenzie Valley, N.W.T. Unpubl. Report; Environmental-Social Program, Northern Pipelines, Task Force on Northern Oil Development:229 pp. (abstract).

Boles, B. K. 1977. Predation by wolves on wolverines. Can. Field-Nat. 91: 68-69.

Bowman, J., J. C. Ray, A. Magoun, D. S. Johnson, and F. N. Dawson. 2010. Roads, logging, and the large-mammal community of an eastern Canadian boreal forest. Can. J. Zool. Vol. 88: 454-467.

Brandly, P. J., and R. Rausch. 1950. A preliminary note on trichinosis investigation in Alaska. Arctic, v. 3, no. 2 Aug.: p. 105-107.

Brower, K. 2006. The Lord Hath Sent Us a Wolverine. California Magazine. May/June 2006. Vol. 117, No. 3.

Bruce, P., and S. Weick. 1973. Wolverine, fisher, and marten occurrence and winter movements in northwestern California. Calif. Dep. Fish and Game unpubl. report: 4 pp. + maps.

Bryant, H. N. 1987. Wolverine from the Pleistocene of the Yukon: evolutionary trends and taxonomy of (Gulo) (Carnivora: Mustelidae). Can. Jour. of Earth Sci. 24: 654-663.

Buckley, J. L. 1954. Animal population fluctuations in Alaska — a history. Trans. 19th N. Am. Wildl. Conf.: Pp. 338-357.

Bulmer, M. G. 1974. A statistical analysis of the 10-year cycle in Canada. J. Animal Ecol.: 43:701-718.

Bulmer, M. G. 1975. Phase relations in the ten-year cycle. J. Animal Ecol.: 44: 611-620.

Burkholder, B. 1952. Annual Predator Control Report, Brooks Range, Alaska. USFWS, Alaska District: 26-32 + map.

Burkholder, B. 1953. Caribou predation by wolverine. Memorandum to MW Kelly, USFWS, Juneau.

Burkholder, B. 1962. Observations concerning wolverine. J. Mammal. 43: 263-264.

Burns, B. 1973. Trapper education series: wolverine. Prov. of Manitoba Dep. of Mines, Res. Envir. Mgmt.: 2 pp.brochure.

Burns, J. J. 1970. Remarks on the distribution and natural history of pagophilic pinnipeds in the Bering and Chukchi seas. J. Mamm.: 51(3): 445-454.

Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenhiedner. 1976. A field guide to the mammals. Houghton-Mifflin Co.: Boston: 289 pp.

Buskirk, S. W., P. F. A. Maderson, and R. M. O’Conner. 1986. Plantar glands in North American Mustelidae. Pages 617-622 in D. Duvall, D. Muller-Schwarze, and R. M. Silverstein eds. Chemical signals in vertebrates IV. Plenum Press, New York.

Buskirk, S. W., and S. L. Lindstedt. 1989. Sex biases in trapped samples of mustelids. J. Mamm.: 70(1): 88-97.

Butts, T. W. 1992. Wolverine (Gulo gulo) biology and management:A literature review and annotated bibliography. US Forest Service: 106 pp. Cited in Biodiversity Legal Foundation.


Cahn, A. R. 1937. Mammals of the Quetico Provincial Park of Ontario. J. mammal.: 18: 19-29.

Cain, J. 1994. Magnetic Northerner. BBC Wildlife. Vol. 12, No. 12: Pp.14-22.

Cain, J. 1996. Field observations of Wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) in eastern Talkeetna Mountains, south-central Alaska. Small Carnivore Conservation. No. 14: Pp. 11.

Cain, J. 1998. Wolverine. Mammal News. No. 15: Pp. 10-11.

Cain, J. 2001. Alaskan travelogue: Wolverines. Mammal News. No. 127: Pp. 8

Cain, J. 2004. Observations on wild Wolverine (Gulo gulo gulo) in north east Finland. Small Carnivore Conservation. No. 30: Pp. 14-15.

Cain, J. 2005. Dances with wolverines. Mammal Society. Spring 2005. No. 141: Pg 7

Cain, J. 2005. European Studbook for Wolverines, Gulo g. gulo. Encouraging Natural Behaviour in Captive Wolverines. PP. 12‐ 19. Vol: 3. Nordens Ark. Sweden.

Cain, J. and A. Leinonen. May 2006. BBC Wildlife Magazine. Finland’s Wolverines. PP.16‐ 25.

Calif. Dep. Fish and Game. 1978. At the Crossroads 1978. A report on California’s endangered and rare fish and wildlife. Cal. Dep. Fish and Game, Sacramento: 114 pp.

Canadian Fur Industry. 1966. Report on the status of Canadian wildlife used by the fur industry. Dep. Industry, Trade and Commerce: Ottawa.

Canivenc, R., and M. Bonnin-Laffargue. 1963. Inventory of problems raised by the delayed ova implantation in the European badger (Meles meles L.). Enders (ed.) Delayed Implantation, Univ. Chicago Press: P. 115-127.

Carl, G. C., and G. A. Hardy. 1944. Flora and fauna of the Paradise Mine area British Columbia. Rep. Prov. Mus. Nat. Hist. and Anthro., 1944. Victoria: Pages C18-19.

Carrano, M. T. 1996. Morphological indicators of foot posture in mammals: a statistical and biomechanical analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (1997), 121: 77–104. With 8 figures.

Carroll, J. E. 1968-1969. Fisher, marten, wolverine. Conservationist: 23: 31-32, 36-37

Casey, T. M., P. C. Withers, and K. K. Casey. 1979. Metabolic and respiratory responses of Arctic Animals to ambient temperature during the summer. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.: 64A: 331-342.

Cesar, E. 1964. The wolverine–facts and fables. Brit. Col. Digest: 20: 14-15,36-37.

Chadee, K. C., and T. A. Dick. 1982. Biological characteristics and host influence on a geographical isolate of Trichinella (wolverine: 55 deg 00′N, 100 deg 00′W, 1979). Journal of Parasitology: 68: 451-456.

Chappell, D. E., R. A. Van Den Bussche, J. Krizan and B. Patterson. 2004. Contrasting levels of genetic differentiation among populations of wolverines (Gulo gulo) from northern Canada revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Conservation Genetics 5: 759-767.

Clarke, C. H. D. 1944. Notes on the status and distribution of certain mammals and birds in the Mackenzie River and Western Arctic area in 1942 and 1943. Can. Field-Nat.: 58: 97-99.

Clot, A. 1983. Le Glouton (Gulo gulo) (L.), Mustelidae, Carnivora) de la Bastide (Hauters-Pyrenees). Bulletin Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse: 118(1-4): 101-109.

Cockerton, D., and S. Herrero. 1973. A study of wolverine home range and behavior by tracking. Unpubl. Rep., Mt. Assiniboine Prov. Park, British Columbia: 23 pp.

Coneybeare, H. F. 1983. A grizzly bear, wolverine and elk interaction. Alberta Naturalist Vol. 13, No. 2: p. 47-48.

Copeland, J. 1992. Wolverine ecology and habitat use in central Idaho. Progress Report, May 1992: 26 pp.

Copeland, J. 1993. Progress report: Wolverine ecology and habitat use in Central Idaho. Idaho Fish and Game Unpubl. Rep.: 18 pp.

Copeland, J. 1993. Assessment of snow-tracking and remote camera systems to document presence of wolverines at carrion bait stations. Idaho Dep. Fish & Game, Boise: 7 pp.

Copeland, J. 1996. Biology of the wolverine in central Idaho. M.S. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 138 pp.

Copeland, J. P., E. Cesar, J. M. Peek, C. E. Harris, C. D. Long, and D. L. Hunter. 1995. A live trap for wolverine and other forest carnivores. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23: 535-538.

Copeland, J. P., J. M. Peek, C. R. Groves, W. E. Melquist, K. S. McKelvey, G. W. McDaniel, C. D. Long, and C. E. Harris. 2007. Seasonal Habitat Associations of the Wolverine in Central Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 71(7): 2201-2212.

Copeland, J. P., and J. S. Whitman. 2003. Wolverine (Gulo gulo). Pages 672-682 in: Feldhamer, G.A., B.C. Thompson, and J.A. Chapman, (eds.). Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Corbet, G. B. 1966. The terrestrial mammals of western Europe. London: Foulis and Company: 137-139.

Coues, E. 1877. Fur-bearing animals: a monograph of North American Mustelidae. Dep. Interior, USGS Misc. Publ. No. 8, Washington, D. C.: 348 pp.

Coues, E. 1893. History of the expedition under the command of Lewis and Clark. Frances P. Harper, N.Y.: 486 pp.

Coulianos, C. C., and A. G. Johnels. (no date) Note on the subnivean environment of small mammals. Arkiv for Zoologi: Vol. 15: 363-370, No. 24.

Courtwright, A. M. 1965. Game Harvest Statistics. Publ: Alas. Dep. of Fish and Game Proj. No. Alas. W-006-R-05/WK.PL. K: 70 pp.

Cowan, I. 1930. Notes on some mammals in the British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat, 44: 207.

Cowan, I. 1936. Notes on some mammals in the British Columbia Provincial Museum with a list of the type specimens of North American recent mammals in the museum. Can. Field-Nat.: 50: 145-148.

Cowan, I. 1938. The fur trade and the fur cycle: 1825-1857. British Columbia Hist. Quart.: 2: 19-30.

Cowan, I., and C. J. Guiguet. 1965. The mammals of British Columbia. B.C. Prov. Mus. Handbook No. 11, Victoria: 414 pp.

Crisler, L. 1959. He not scare a damn. Nat. Mag.: 52(4): 181-184.

Critchell-Bullock, J. C. 1930. An expedition to subarctic Canada, 1924-1925. Can. Field-Nat.: 44 (9): page 210.

Cunningham, J. D. 1959. The wolverine and the fisher in the Yosemite region. J Mammal.: 40: 614-615.


Dagg, A. I. 1974. Mammals of Ontario. Otter Press: Waterloo, Ontario: 159 pp. cited in Cypher 1982.

Dagg, A. I, and C. A. Campbell. 1974. Historic changes in the distribution and numbers of wolverine in Canada and the northern United States. Ottawa, Can. Wild. Serv. 21pp.

Dagg, A. I, and C. A. Campbell. 1974. An annotated bibliography on the status and ecology of the wolverine in Canada. Can. Wildl. Serv. Manuscript Rep., Ottawa CWSC 1553: 45 pp.

Dalerum, F., S. Creel and S. B. Hall. 2006. Behavioral and endocrine correlates of reproductive failure in social aggregations of captive wolverines (Gulo gulo). Journal of Zoology (London): 269: 5270-0536.

Danilov, P. I. 1965. Some data on the reproduction of glutton. Zool. Zhurnal: 44: 1737-1739.

Danilov, P. I. 1973. Current distribution of some species of mammals in the northwest of the European USSR. Byull Mosh. O-Va. Ispyt. Prir. Otd. Biol.: 78(5): 5-21.

Danilov, P. I., and I. Z. Tumanov. 1972. Reproductive cycles of males in some mustelidae. Zool. Zh. 51(6): 871-880.

Danilov, P. I., and I. Z. Tumanov. 1975. The reproductive cycles of some mustelidae species. Byull Mosk O-va Ispyt. PRIR Otd Biol. 80 (5): 35-47 (Biol. Abstr. Jan. 1977).

Dauphine, C. 1987. Status report on the wolverine (Gulo) in Canada. Prepared for the Canadian Scientific Authorities for the Convention on the International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES).

Davis, W. B. 1939. The recent mammals of Idaho. Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Id. 400pp.

Davis, D. G. 1967. A brief note on the birth of wolverines (Gulo gulo) at Colorado Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook: 7: 127.

de Vos, A. 1959. Biological investigation of traplines in northern Ontario, 1951-1956. Tech. Bull., Ontario Dep. Lands and Forest: Wildlife Series 8: 62.

de Vos, A. 1964. Range changes of mammals in the Great Lakes region. Amer. Midland Nat.: 71: 210-231.

de Vos, A., and R. L. Peterson. 1951. A review of the status of woodland caribou (Rangifer caribou) in Ontario. J. Mamm. 32: 329-337.

Deems, E. F. Jr., and D. Pursley. 1978. North American furbearers. Int. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies: 171 pp.

Degerbol, M. 1935. Report of the mammals collected by Fifth Thule Expedition to Arctic North America: Part I. Systematic Notes, Vol. II. 4: 1-67.

Degerbol, M., and P. Freuchen. 1935. Zoology I, Mammals. Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag, Copenhagen: 278 pp.

Desmarest, A. G. 1820. Mammalogie ou description des especes de mammiferes. Vol. 1, Veuve Agasses, Paris, France: 555 pp.

Dice, L. R. 1921. Notes on some mammals of interior Alaska. J. Mammal.: 2: 20-31.

Diedrich, C. 2008. A Late Pleistocene wolverine Gulo gulo (Linné 1758) skeleton remain from the Sloup Cave in the Moravian Karst, Czech Republic. – Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien, 110A: 123-132, Wien.

Diedrich, C., and J. Copeland. 2009. Upper Pleistocene Gulo gulo (Linné 1758) remains from the Srbsko Chlum-Komin hyena den cave in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) with comparisons to contemporary wolverines. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 72, no. 2, p. 122–127.

Dieterich, R. A. 1981. Alaskan wildlife diseases. Inst. of Arct. Biol., Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks. 524pp.

Dixon, J. 1925. Closed season needed for fisher, marten, and wolverine in California. Calif. fish and Game: 11: 23-25.

Dixon, J. S. 1938. Birds and mammals of Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. Fauna Series, No. 3. U.S. Govt. Print. Office.: pp. 151-155.

Dodds, D. G. 1965. Wild captives. MacMillan of Canada, Toronto: 167 pp.

Döppes, D. 2001. The wolverine (Gulo gulo L.) in Spain – one of the south most spreading during the Pleistocene. Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxico de Laxe 26: 479-484, Coruna.

Dubey, J. P. 1982. Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana. Vet. Res. Lab., Dep. Vet. Sci., State Univ., Bozeman, Montana: J of the American Veterinary Medical Assoc. 181(11): 1270-1271.

Duncan, P. M. 1871. The musk ox and the wolverine–a geographical parallel. Illustrated Travels: 3(25): 29-32.

Dunn, E. J. aES. 1978. The family Mustelidae:a bibliography. Fish and Wildl. Bull. No. B-4, British Columbia Wildlife Branch, Victoria: 73 pp.


Edwards, R. Y., and I. McT. Cowan. 1957. Fur production of the boreal forest region of British Columbia. J. Wildl Manage.: 21: 257-267.

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